Regarding whether FDR had signs and symptoms of PPS, in retrospect, I believe he did show signs of PPS at least during the last year of his life. I have read Dr. Howard Bruenn's (FDR's cardiologist) medical article on FDR's illness. This article was published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1972. It is true that FDR had significant hypertension and congestive heart failure. However, for the most part, except for being unable to totally stop smoking, he followed the treatment protocol and showed signs of improvement. During that last year, he rarely used his braces, gave very few speeches standing, had the developement of weakness in his hands making it more difficult to write and transfer, experienced more fatigue requiring more sleep, curtailed swimming and physically exerting himself, and seemed somewhat depressed as he did less socializing. As many of us with PPS, he had other problems of aging such as hypertension, less energy, and more mental strain. He got polio later in life and did not have as much life energy to fight it as long as those who got it as children. Thus, in my mind, getting PPS after 23 years of struggling with significant residual damage from polio would make him highly vulnerable for PPS. Of course, we will never know for sure, but in retrospect as I said, I believe that he had signs and symptoms of PPS.
Henry Holland, Richmond., Virginia, USA. Henry4FDR@aol.com
2nd May 1997
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